PFAS Destruction FAQs

PFAS Destruction: FAQs About SCWO, AFFF, PFAS Annihilator®

Get the details direct from our experts for the most asked questions about PFAS destruction. We’ll also provide links to other PFAS Annihilator® insights for more information on specific questions.

Can PFAS be destroyed?

PFAS (per and polyfluoroalkyl substances) can now be destroyed to non-detect levels with our PFAS Annihilator® technology.

Does PFAS destruction create harmful byproducts?

Other PFAS treatment methods, like incineration, are suspected to release harmful byproducts into the environment, posing a threat to public health and transferring the PFAS to a different media. They  also usually require shipping the PFAS materials across state lines to treatment facilities in other states.

PFAS destruction with PFAS Annihilator® does not create hazardous waste byproducts. Instead, PFAS Annihilator® neutralizes the chemicals, leaving inert salts, a small amount of carbon dioxide, and PFAS-free water.

Can PFAS be destroyed on-site?

On-site PFAS destruction is available with PFAS Annihilator®, due to its mobile design and ease of portability.

What percent of PFAS can be destroyed?

The goal is 100% destruction of all PFAS, to non-detect levels regardless of the starting concentrations. Consistently over 99.99% of PFAS are proven to be destroyed with PFAS Annihilator®. Pre and post analysis results are provided with each destruction.

Where can I get started with PFAS destruction?

Get the details on the PFAS Annihilator®, or contact our team to find out if PFAS Annihilator® is a fit for your project.

What are common methods of PFAS treatment?

Common methods of PFAS treatment include but are not limited to:

  • Adsorption including granular activated carbon and ion exchange
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Incineration
  • Supercritical water oxidation and other oxidation processes
  • Landfilling
  • Deep well injection

Do all PFAS treatment methods destroy PFAS?

Most PFAS treatment methods transfer these “forever chemicals” from one phase to another , but do not break the carbon-fluorine bond to truly destroy them.

What is PFAS incineration?

PFAS incineration is a waste destruction process in which PFAS waste is subjected to high temperatures in an attempt to break down the chemical bond.

Does PFAS incineration break down the chemicals?

Complete breakdown of PFAS during incineration depends on the high operating temperatures and the residence times during the treatment. Although PFAS incineration treats the waste stream, potential generation of PFAS byproducts or products of incomplete combustion (PICs), which may be released into the air as stack emissions, are not well understood. Another waste stream that is generated is wet ash which is either recycled back to the wastewater treatment plants, or disposed of in landfills.

Is there a viable alternative to PFAS incineration?

The PFAS Annihilator® is an excellent alternative to incineration. The process uses supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to break the carbon-fluorine bond without producing harmful byproducts.

What is activated carbon?

Activated carbon is an absorbent form of carbon granules or particles that can be used to remove contaminants such as PFAS from water.

Does activated carbon treat PFAS?

Activated carbon is used to remove PFAS from drinking water as well as treat PFAS at wastewater treatment plants and in groundwater extraction systems.  However, do to the relatively low adsorptive capacity of activated carbon for PFAS, replacement of the carbon can be frequent and costly.

How is granular activated carbon regenerated?

Granular activated carbon thermal regeneration is a method of heating carbon to temperatures greater than 1000 degrees Celsius, for the purpose of reuse.

Can granular activated carbon be regenerated on-site?

Granular activated carbon can now be regenerated on-site with our non-thermal, solvent-based GAC RENEW™ technology.

What is GAC RENEW™?

GAC RENEW™ is an innovative, solvent-based approach to GAC regeneration that reactivates the carbon on-site, saving time and money and lengthening the life of the system. Revive has proven that GAC can be regenerated at least 4 times, and likely more.

What are the benefits of GAC RENEW™?

Benefits of GAC RENEW™ include:

  • Cost savings
  • Increased uptime of the system
  • Less energy usage
  • Lengthening carbon life (up to 4x)
  • Better PFAS removal
  • Pairs with PFAS Annihilator® for a complete PFAS destruction solution

What is supercritical water oxidation?

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a chemical process that uses increased temperature and pressure in the presence of an oxidant to break down “forever chemicals” like PFAS and other organics.

How does SCWO work?

The SCWO process leverages the unique properties of supercritical water to break down PFAS chemicals. A supercritical fluid is a substance held at a temperature and pressure above its critical point. In this state, the fluid is neither a liquid nor a gas and has properties of both.

Substances begin to act differently above the critical point. Polar substances (e.g., salts) become immiscible, and nonpolar substances (such as petroleum products) become completely miscible. Supercritical water is highly expandable and compressible. Without distinct liquid and gas phases, mass transfer is unrestricted, facilitating chemical reactions.

The properties of supercritical water are leveraged by PFAS Annihilator® to break down PFAS and other recalcitrant chemical compounds. Supercritical oxidation can rapidly break down compounds that do not oxidize readily at standard temperatures and pressures, destroying chemicals that would otherwise persist for decades or centuries in the environment.

Does SCWO fully destroy PFAS?

Using SCWO, PFAS Annihilator® destroys PFAS chemicals to non-detect levels in a variety of PFAS-impacted sources, including groundwater and process water, PFAS in landfill leachate, aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF), and others.

Does SCWO create harmful byproducts?

PFAS destruction using SCWO doesn’t produce unwanted or harmful byproducts, unlike alternative treatment methods.

How can we destroy PFAS at the source?

We destroy PFAS at the source by treating materials like Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF), landfill leachate, investigation-derived waste, and wastewater before they further contaminate surrounding air, soil, and groundwater.

What are common PFAS sources that can be destroyed by the PFAS Annihilator® ?

Common PFAS sources to be destroyed include:

  • Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)
  • Landfill leachate
  • Groundwater, surface water, and aqueous investigation-derived waste (IDW) generated from investigations of this media.
  • Wastewater
  • Investigation-derived waste (IDW)

What is Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)?

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF), also known as firefighting foam, is a fire suppressant used to fight Class B fires (chemical or fuel fires involving flammable liquids). AFFF typically contains high concentrations of PFAS chemicals.

Can PFAS be destroyed in AFFF?

AFFF destruction to non-detect levels is made possible with PFAS Annihilator®.

What is PFAS-contaminated landfill leachate?

PFAS-contaminated landfill leachate is wastewater formed from rainwater and other moisture passing through landfill waste. PFAS present in landfill waste ends up in the leachate.

Can PFAS be destroyed in landfill leachate?

Over 99.99% of PFAS is proven to be destroyed in landfill leachate with PFAS Annihilator®.

What is PFAS PFAS Annihilator®?

PFAS Annihilator® is on-site PFAS destruction technology that uses supercritical water oxidation to destroy PFAS in a variety of media and concentrations.

Is PFAS Annihilator® ready for use?

PFAS Annihilator® is ready to destroy PFAS in AFFF, landfill leachate, and wastewater for clients across industries.

How can I get started with PFAS Annihilator®?

Get in touch with our team to discuss your PFAS destruction needs, download the “Don’t Move PFAS. Destroy It.white paper to learn how PFAS Annihilator® works, or explore the features and benefits of PFAS Annihilator®.

PFAS Annihilator®

Learn how the PFAS Annihilator® destroys PFAS and prevents them from transferring elsewhere, all without creating harmful byproducts.

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